Ubuntu 8.04, uvod do instalace a nastaveni

Uz pred nejakou dobou jsem psal o Ubuntu, nicmene tehda se muj pokus o zavedeni tehle distribuce na desktop moc nepovedl. Nevim co me dneska v noci popadlo, ale asi ve dve hodiny rano jsem dal Ubuntu druhou sanci :-)

Ubuntu Linux patri mezi jedny z nejpouzivanejsich linux distribuci na desktopu a laptopu vubec, nikoho tedy neprakvapi, ze opet vyhraje v jedne ankete. Na laptopu uz Ubuntu 8.04 nejaky cas sedi vcetne dalsich operacnich systemu. Na desktop se mi jej moc nasazovat nechtelo, ale Mandriva me dostavala posledni dobou do jiste nostalgie a tak jsem se jal instalovat Ubuntu, abych zase mohl resit necekane problemy a vubec si rozsiril obzor. Mimo jine me hodne lakalo APT, ktere ve svete Linuxu nema konkurenci click to read.

Jedna z mala veci, ktera me na Ubuntu mrzi, je graficky instalator kombinovany s LiveCD. Tahle kombinace sebou nese velke naroky na hw pocitace, takze jsem se dal do instalace AlternateCD (textovy rezim instalace). Instalace je naprosto jednoducha, clovek si vybere vzdy z nejake nabidky, obcas neco nastavi a po asi 30 minutach je hotovo. Vyjede mechanika, restartuje se pocitac a hura do Ubuntu.

Grub je skvely, ale LiLo je lepsi
problem cislo jedna hned po instalaci u mnoho uzivatelu. Zavadeci program ma casto problemy s hw pocitace, casto se zakladni deskou a taky s disky. Nekdy nefunguje Grub a nekdy zase LiLo, kazdopadne vetsinou jeden z techto programu vzdy funguje korektne. Proto dvakrat bohuzel, protoze “defaultne” bez moznosti volby se instaluje prave Grub, ktery je znam na diskuzich svymi errory. Na diskuzich se da ledacos vycist, ovsem vetsinou to moc nepomuze a nebo to pripomina lov kanonem na vrabce:

How to install Lilo to a Ubuntu partition

Installing LILO on Ubuntu
GRUB Error 21 (ubuntu.cz)

vsechny tyhle navody maji jedno spolecne, instalace zavadece bez instalace noveho systemu. Ovsem pokud vim, ze Grub si s mym pocitacem nerozumi, je vhodne na to myslet jiz pri instalaci (prvni instalaci) systemu. Jak nastavit tedy LiLo, kdyz volba neexistuje?

Instalace Ubuntu s LiLo
instalace se nijak nelisi od bezne viz vyse, vyplnime vse co po nas instalacni dialog bude chtit, nechame system nainstalovat az se dostaneme do jednoho z poslednich kroku, treba nastaveni UTC a nebo az nakonec instalace, kdy nam vyjede mechanika. Dialog bude mit dve volby GO BACK (jit zpet) a CONTINUE (pokracovat). Zvolime ESC a nabidne se nam rolovaci menu, kde jsou vsechny body instalace a take dve volby zavadece, jedna pro Grub a jedna pro LiLo, zvolime se tedy INSTALOVAT ZAVADEC LILO. Po nekolika minutach jiz mame nainstalovane LiLo a muzeme uspesne ukoncit instalaci a restartovat pocitac.

Po restartovani systemu nas privita GDM a po prihlaseni si pak uzivame komfortu samotneho systemu Ubuntu. Nicmene jeste jedna problemova otazka zbyva…

Instalace graficke karty nVidia
jiz jsem psal o instalaci ovladacu pro Mandriva Linux. Ubuntu je v tohle smeru mnohem luxusnejsi. Spravce Hardware Drivers sam najde nove zarizeni, pripadne upozorni na moznost instalace “nesvobodneho” ovladace od nVidie. Behem nekolik okamziku, asi tri kliknuti mate nainstalovany aktualni ovladac vasi graficke karty. Radost kazi jenom fakt, ze nejde o nVidia driver instalator, ale o udelatko od Ubuntu a musi se kvuli tomu restartovat cely system – Xserver nestaci.
Bod zlomu se objevi po najeti Ubuntu s novymi ovladaci, kdy nepochopitelne nejde nastavit vyssi rozliseni jak 800×600 (low resolution). Tenhle problem maji predevsim uzivatele starsich grafickych karet v Ubuntu, obecne oznacovane jako “legacy”. Neco se diskutuje i na webu:

BinaryDriverHowto/Nvidia
HOWTO: Latest NVIDIA drivers on Ubuntu
Hardy a nVidia driver
problém s NVIDIA MX 440

Muj problem byl trochu specificky. Odinstaloval jsem ovladac nVidia, ktery mi vnutilo Ubuntu a jal se instalovat ovladac oficialni cestou (viz nVidia & Mandriva), vse probehlo v poradku, ovsem bez jakekoliv zmeny xorg.conf. Nakonec se mi problem podarilo zdarne vyresit instalaci dvou balicku nvidia-xconfig a nvidia-settings. Restartoval jsem Xserver a spustil si nvidia-xconfig a manualne nastavil grafickou kartu a monitor. Po spusteni Xserveru byl jiz xorg.conf upraveny, ale stale bylo nizke rozliseni. Nyni jiz ale slo znova nainstalovat graficke ovladace (original nVidia installer) a naslednou editaci xorg.conf (zmena nv na nvidia) a poslednim restartem Xserveru se vse vratilo do starych koleji – logo nVidia pri startu GDM :-)

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Psi v Ubuntu, no SSL/TLS plugin

Ubuntu dela radost kazdym coulem, po problemech s instalaci systemu, zavadecem Grub (LiLo) a ovladaci graficke karty prisly na radu nyni samotne aplikace. Nastesti se nasel jenom jeden bug, presneji BUG #188699 diky nemuz se neni schopny oblibeny kecalek Psi spojit s jabber serverem sifrovane.

Problem bezne resi doinstalovani balicku qca-tls, ten by normalne stacil, nicmene prave kvuli zminene chybe bude nutne jeste doinstalovat libqca2-plugin-ossl, ktery nam vse vyresi :-)

Bug #188699 in psi (Ubuntu)

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Mandriva a nVidia ovladace

Obcas neni na skodu mit “plnohodnotnou” grafickou podporu a nespokojovat se pouze s 2D. Z vlastnich zkusenosti mi je zatim prijemnejsi instalace ovladacu nVidia grafickych karet, takze osobne v Linuxu jenom nVidia :-)

Instalace v bodech:

    1. stazeni aktualnich ovladacu z webu nvidia.com pro grafickou kartu
    2. stazeni a instalace balicku make, kernel-source, gcc
    3. vypnuti X serveru (X11)
    4. prihlaseni v terminalu jako root
    5. instalace ovladacu nvidia
    6. editace xorg.conf souboru

1. Stazeni ovladace z webu
zamirime na web nvidia.com do sekce pro Unix systemy a dale do sekce download drivers. Nyni zvolime ve vyberu nasi grafickou kartu a bude nam doporucena ta prava verze ovladace. Zejmena pro starsi typy karet neni vhodne stahovat ovladace s nejnovejsim datem vydani. V mem pripade tedy:

Product Type: LEGACY
Product Series: RIVA 128 AGP SERIES
Operating System: LINUX 32-BIT
Language: ENGLISH (US)

po kliknuti na search je mi doporucen ovladac NVIDIA-Linux-x86-71.86.04-pkg1.run. Dale nas ovladac stahneme a ulozime na disk

2. Zavislosti
ovladac se bude muset zkompilovat, takze bude treba nekolik balicku. Zdrojove kody jadra kernel-source, knihovna pro kompilovani GCC a samozrejme make. Pripadne dalsi balicky, ktere budou chybet – budou nam oznameny pri instalaci ovladace

3. Ukonceni X serveru
neni mozne menit neco co bezi na pozadi, je tedy nutne vypnout X server (X11) a prihlasit se v terminalu. Melo by stacit CTRL+ALT+F1 (nebo F2-F6), pripadne restart celeho systemu do terminalu

4. Prihlaseni v terminalu
v terminalu se prihlasime jako root

5. Instalace ovladacu
zahajima instalaci ovladacu, pokud jsme si stahli ovladace do adresare home, tak prikazem:
sh /home/NVIDIA-Linux-x86-71.86.04-pkg1.run

spusti se instalacni proces ovladacu, odklikame vsechny polozky (hlavne licenci potvrdime). Behem instalace je mozne se pripojit na server nvidia.com a zkusit najit zkompilovanou verzi ovladace (ztrata casu). A pokud nam ke kompilaci nic nechybi, tak se ovladace zkompiluji a nainstaluji. Pokud se vyskytne nejaky problem, proces skonci chybou, kterou nam vypise a podle toho budeme dal postupovat. Vetsina chyb je zpusobena chybejicimi balicky ke kompilaci a nebo nevyhovujici verzi ovladace pro grafickou kartu

6. Editace XORG.CONF
po instalaci jeste nejsou nove ovladace aktivni, je nutne tedy upravit soubor xorg.conf:
/etc/X11/xorg.conf

najdeme si nasledujici radky Section "Device" a Driver "nv". V radku Driver prepiseme nv na nvidia a pokud jsme tak neucinili z terminalu (napriklad pres vi ci vim) tak restartujeme X server, treba pomoci CTR+ALT+BACKSPACE

odkazy:
Installing NVIDIA 3D Drivers
Setting up NVIDIA Graphics Drivers

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Co mi vadi na operacnim systemu Linux

Uz jsem psal o tom, jak je Linux skvely a jednoduchy, co vsechno na nem pouzivam a bez ceho se neobejdu nebo jsem nastinil svou cestu do sveta operacniho systemu GNU Linux, ale jeste nikdy jsem nic nenapsal o tom, co mi v Linuxu chybi a nebo co mi na systemu vadi ci nevyhovuje.

*tiskneme text, ale tlacime obraz
top problem v mem doupeti, tisk dokumentu na tiskarne HP LaserJet 1200 je bez problemu, tedy pokud jde jenom o strohy text, pokud pridam nejaky ten obraz nebo kdyz se snazim vytisknout “sken”, tak si muzu jit uvarit kafe. Dodnes nevim presne kde hledat chybu, pri tisku textu mam stranku venku behem nekolika sekund, pri tisku obrazu si pockam i nekolik minut a nekdy se nedockam vubec, protoze spadne tiskovy server (cups). Tady jednoznacne vede system Windows a jeho ovladace k tiskarne

*nenazranost systemu
hodne kritiky se snesla na nove Windows Vista a nebo se stale i snasi na starsi Windows XP ve smyslu hw naroku, nicmene defaultni instalace s KDE dokaze i nenazraneho molocha z Redmontu hrave trumfnout. Neni daleko doba, kdy si i pro KDE budu muset porizovat 4GB RAM. Ovsem KDE neni jediny windows manager a treba XFCE a nebo Fluxbox vraci hw naroky zase do stavu na jaky jsem zvykly

*sprava napajeni
tohle nechapu, jednou si nastavim ze nechci aby se mi monitor po nejake dobe vypinal (sleep) a po restartu PC se vsechno nastaveni vrati do default, drobna vec, ktera ale dokaze pekne pit krev

*rychlost aplikaci
pokud jde o graficke aplikace tak jejich rychlost spousteni a odezva je delsi nez v systemu Windows, uz nejakou dobu nejsem zamereny na kazdou vterinku pri spousteni Firefoxu, takze mi to ani neprijde. Nicmene diky tomu uprednostnuji terminalove klienty a nastroje

*programove vybaveni
nikdy jsem nepouzival naucne programy ci slovniky, jedinou vyjimku tvoril Winged, ktery povazuji za jeden z nejlepsich slovniku vubec, ovsem v Linuxu jej neni nutno cpat ani do WINE, protoze na preklad je vynikajici slovnik.cz a nebo nove i translate.google.cz. Ostatni aplikace jsem si dohledal, ne vzdy jsou treba tak komfortni a pohodlne jako v systemu Windows, ale jsou funkcni a splni ucel – nicmene kompromisy zde hraji dulezitou roli

*lokalizace systemu
tohle je vec, kterou sem nikdy neresil, ale je pravda, ze kdyz si clovek otevre nejakou aplikaci a chvili na nej mluvi cesky (česky) a chvilkami na nej vybafne anglictina – nedodelany preklad, tak to nepusobi zrovna prijemne. Nejshudnejsi je asi pristup Axisse, ktery nechava prostredi systemu v anglictine, jednou do toho taky dorostu

vice me toho nenapada, jsem docela skromny uzivatel a bavi me resit problemy. Linux je vyzva, je to system ve kterem je radost pracovat a ve kterem se problemy resi a daji se resit. Pokud si chcete pokecat o systemu Linux muzete tak ucinit na NewDS ;-)

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A nejlepsi linuxova distribuce je

Server ABClinuxu.cz vyhlasuje jiz 9. rocnik Ankety o “nej…” distribuci roku – Anketa o distribuci 2008.

Proc je takova anketa zajimava? V podstate neni zajimava vubec nicim, jenom se tam nahrne par fanatiku, kteri zacnou klikat bezmyslenkovite pro svou oblibenou distribuci. Potom je samozrejme nekolik % jedincu, kteri opravdu pouziji strizlivy odhad a nebo sve vlastni zkusenosti – vseobecne receno zapoji i tu kouli na krku do procesu. Shrnuto podtrzeno, z anketnich otazek jsou nejzajimavejsi ty z poslednich, protoze u nich jiz nelze labilne volit distribuci, ale zverejnuji se osobni udaje – vek, pohlavi apod.

Jake jsou kategorie:
Distribuce: Desktop/notebook, Server, Živá (liveCD), Enterprise, Jak dlouho používám Linux, Jak často používám Linux, Kde používám Linux, Platforma, Architektura, Jaké další operační systémy používám
Statistické informace: Pohlaví, Věk, Vzdělání, Zaměstnání, Pracovní zařazení, E-mail

Z prvnich ctyr otazek je relevantni jenom ta prvni, ostatni jsou spis zbozna prani. Hezka predstava nasazeni treba OpenSuSe na serveru, ale stejne na nej bude nasazeny Debian, protoze…neni zadne protoze :-) Na desktop se hodi to, v cem umi kdo pracovat a kdyz vezmeme masove nasazeni komunitni podpory Ubuntu, tak je rozhodnuto. Nebo snad nekdo zna pocetnejsi, obetavejsi a hlavne lepe fungujici (asi by stacilo jenom “fungujici”) komunitu, nez prave tu okolo Ubuntu? Alespon u nas kdyz clovek narazi na nejaky problem, se kterym potrebuje poradit, tak diskuze na ubuntu.cz je k nezaplaceni. Snaha o forum v podani mandriva.cz mi prijde jako zapomenuty aprilovy zert. Jaky je rozdil mezi desktopem a laptopem (notebook)? Absolutne zadny, pokud neni clovek citlivka na kazdy 1Hz vykonu procesoru, jinak jasne vede Gentoo se svym uchvatnym systemem “zkompiluj vse co se da”.

Tak ktera distribuce to bude letos? Asi nebude prekvapeni, ze na desktopu drtive zvitezi Ubuntu a na serveru Debian, pricemz zde Ubuntu zvysi svuj podil nad 10%. Zajimave bude sledovat i podil 64×32 bitove architektury, ikdyz zde bude i nemale procento chyb zapricineno chybnou logikou – kolik jelimanku bude klikat za hardware namisto software nasazeni? Nakonec vysledky z roku 2007 :-)

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The Mana World v Mandrive, kompilace bez legrace

Co je to The Mana World? Mozna ze jedna z nejlepsich MMORPG v 2D vubec. TMW je multiplatformni, tedy aplikace ktera funguje jak na Windows, tak v Linuxu a dokonce i na Apple. Co je jeste vice supr, co vas treba na Diablu mohlo nudit, ze TMW se hraje online. Proste si stahnete jednoduchou aplikaci ze stranek hry, nainstalujete, vytvorite si ve hre profil (muzete i vice) a hrajete. Parada je, ze veskere aktualizace hry se provedou pri kazdem spusteni automaticky a nemusi se tak hlidat zadne patche apod. A samozrejme, hra je v cilem vyvoji a tak je nabizena zdarma, coz zajiste potesi predevsim skudlive cechacky :-) Ale ted k tomu problemu jak rozjet TMW v Mandrive…

Mam aktualni verzi distribuce, tedy Mandriva 2008 Spring (2008.1). Pro mou distribuci neni zatim zadny RPM balicek, pohodlnou instalaci pres Synaptic maji jenom uzivatele Windows, MacOS X, Slackware, Debian, Ubuntu, Gentoo a Fedora.

TMW ma nejake pozadavky:
* SDL http://www.libsdl.org/
* SDL_mixer http://www.libsdl.org/projects/SDL_mixer/
* SDL_image http://www.libsdl.org/projects/SDL_image/
* SDL_net http://www.libsdl.org/projects/SDL_net/
* Guichan 0.7.x http://guichan.sourceforge.net/
* libxml2 http://www.xmlsoft.org/
* physfs 1.0.x http://icculus.org/physfs/
* zlib 1.2.x http://www.gzip.org/zlib/
* libcurl http://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/

coz mimo jine znamena, ze bychom meli vsechno stahnout a zkompilovat. Kompilace neni zabava a nese sebou casto spoustu problemu, proto je lepsi vedet, co se musi rucne kompilovat a co staci stahnout z repozitare. Jedine co v repozitarich Mandrivy nenajdete je Guichan!

Instalacni kroky zahajime stahnutim zdrojovych kodu hry (Source code), nasledne si stahneme Guichan, doporucuji verzi Guichan 0.7.1, novejsi verze mely problemy s grafikou a reseni neni na par minut googleni. Ve slozce kam jsme si stahli Guichan provedeme klasicke tri krucky = sh configure + make + make install

Tohle jeste jde, ted je potreba doinstalovat vsechny zbyle potrebne balicky, takze instalujeme uz z repozitare SDL_mixer, SDL_image, SDL_net, libxml2, physfs, zlib a libcurl. Balicky jsou vetsinou oznacene jako devel.

Nyni se presuneme do slozky kam jsme si stahli zdrojove kody samotne hry TMW a pristoupime ke kopmilaci – zahajime tedy sh configure, pokud behem checkingu dojde k erroru, urcite chybi nejaka komponenta z vyse vypsanych, je nutne ji doinstalit (bude vypsana ve vypisu). Pokud proces skonci bez chyby, tak pokracujeme prikazem make. Pokud skonci bez chyby, tak pokracujeme prikazem make install. Po skonceni procesu spustime treba v konzoli hru prikazem tmw – enjoy the game ;-)

…ale take se muze stat, ze se hra nespusti ackoliv vse probleho bez problemu = pres prikaz spustit se nic nedozvime, proto doporucuji spoustet v konzoli, vyhodi se nam nejaka chyba – viz problemy, pod clankem

Problemy:

Guichan 0.8.1
psal jsem o nem zamerne, jde o nejaky problemovy vzorek, takze se pri pokusu o make TMW dostavy chybove hlaseni “gui/widgets/resizegrip.cpp:64: error: invalid static_cast…” a dal se clovek nehne. Na diskuzi se clovek potom docte nejlepsi rady “vyzkousej jinou verzi Guichan” :-D

takze jsme si nainstalovali verzi Guichan 0.7.1, ktera ovsem nefunguje korektne:
teekey@desktop:~$ tmw
tmw: error while loading shared libraries: libguichan_sdl.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

vsechno je nainstalovane, jenom aplikace hleda zminenou knihovnu libguichan_sdl.so.0 jinde, nez kde se veskutecnosti nachazi, pomuzou nam nasledujici dva prikazy (pod rootem):
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libguichan_sdl.so.0 /usr/lib
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libguichan.so.0 /usr/lib

Na zaver, kde jinde si clovek skvele pokeca o tehle parbe nez na NewDS!

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